You are not alone in having difficulty deciding between vinyl and fibreglass replacement windows; in fact, you are in good company. When picking between vinyl and fibreglass windows for their home, homeowners must consider a number of critical variables, and the decision is not always easy. When looking for windows for new construction or replacement windows, you have the choice of picking window frames constructed of a range of materials.
Windows framed of aluminium, vinyl, or fibreglass (or fibreglass composite) are now available, in addition to wood-framed windows, which are still available. Vinyl, a fibreglass equivalent, or a composite of fibreglass and other materials are fast becoming the only practical possibilities. How do these materials differ when it comes to the building of window frames, and which one is superior in general? Prospective purchasers must consider a number of criteria while acquiring a home, including strength, durability, affordability, and beauty.
This article will compare and contrast vinyl and fibreglass replacement windows, as well as highlight the pros and downsides of each material, in order to help you make an informed selection that is appropriate for your home, finances, and way of life.
Extruded polyvinyl chloride, also known as PVC, is the primary component used in the production of vinyl windows. In addition to this, the frames could have an interior structural element made of metal in order to make them more rigid. Vinyl windows made their first notable appearance in the 1970s, when smaller window fabricators began offering vinyl-framed windows to satisfy specific measurements that larger window manufacturers were unable to provide. This was the first time that vinyl windows were produced in substantial numbers.
However, vinyl windows did not become a well-liked choice for homeowners as a common option until the 1990s. The benefits of manufacturing vinyl windows were immediately recognised by large corporations. Today, hundreds of prominent window manufacturers offer comprehensive lines of vinyl-framed windows for their customers to choose from.
The fact that vinyl-framed windows are significantly more cost-effective than their wooden-framed counterparts—on average, they cost just roughly half as much—is the product's most notable benefit. Windows made of vinyl are also energy efficient because they are constructed utilising hollow holes that can be filled with insulation to boost R-value. This traps air and increases the R-value of the window.
Any sized opening can have a window made of vinyl manufactured to accommodate it. Windows made of vinyl never need to have their frames painted. If you choose to paint your vinyl windows, however, this advantage can become a negative in a similar fashion. Painting vinyl windows is possible, but it won't look very good because the paint will chip off quickly. In addition, there is a restricted colour palette available to choose from when purchasing vinyl windows.
- Environmental friendliness. Plastic that is safe for the human body and does not pollute the environment is typically used in the production of windows. This material does not contribute to global warming.
- Tightness. This type of glass has excellent sound insulation performance and does not allow any unwanted sounds to enter the space. In addition to this, the room temperature is greater than normal because they are excellent at retaining heat.
- Superior functionality and long-term stability.
- tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, atmospheric pressures, and levels of humidity. They do not decay, they do not swell, and they do not lose their moisture content.
- Affordable for most people.
- Because electrostatic dust may adhere so easily to plastic frames, you should clean them on a regular basis.
- When the temperature is changed, polyvinyl chloride has a tendency to shift in how dense it is. It is possible for fissures and fractures to appear between the window and the wall as a result of the expansion and contraction of the structures brought on by changes in temperature.
- Because it has multiple double-glazed windows, it is cumbersome and expensive. In order to stay warm during the severe winter, it is necessary to place two or even three glass blocks inside of the plastic frames. Naturally, this will have an effect on the price of the windows.
Whereas vinyl windows were able to successfully develop a consumer base that did not previously exist, fibreglass frame windows were able to take this concept one step further.
The production of fibreglass begins with the activation of polyester resins by a catalyst, which is followed by pultrusion or drawing the material through a heated die.
Resins are soaked into glass strands or glass mats to create an impregnated material. The completed item is known as a linear, and it is possible to be machined and moulded into other forms.
The production of extremely lightweight and sturdy materials for canoes, skis, and surfboards has been made possible for a very long time by using fibreglass.
Around the year 2000, there was a surge in demand for fibreglass (and windows made of composite fibreglass). The limitations of vinyl windows inspired the original development of these alternative window options.
Vinyl has the disadvantage of gradually losing its resiliency over the course of its lifetime, whereas fibreglass does not have this issue.
In addition to this, fibreglass is a more solid material than vinyl. As a result of the fact that fibreglass windows can achieve the same level of energy efficiency with smaller frames that have a lower profile, fibreglass frames are an option that is considered to be more appealing.
Additionally, fibreglass may be produced in a fashion that is extremely similar to that of wood, right down to the fact that it can be painted in a variety of colours.
Recent fibreglass windows are more correctly defined as fibreglass composites since they are made with a blend of fibreglass and polyester resins. This allows for a more precise description of the material.
Windows with frames made of fibreglass are gaining popularity because they are more durable than those made of wood and have prices that fall between those of vinyl and wood.
- Insulation against the heat. Glass fibres, by themselves, have a poor level of thermal conductivity;
- Resistant to deformation, does not narrow and does not expand when there are sudden changes in the climate.
- Environmental friendliness. Fiberglass is a non-toxic substance that is safe for both human health and the environment, despite the fact that it is a synthetic material.
- both resistant to fire and proof against it.
- It does not corrode, it does not deteriorate, and it does not lose its colour when exposed to the sun.
- The price is significantly higher than that of vinyl windows.
- It is not possible to bend the fibreglass profile. As a result, it is not possible to create fibreglass buildings that are arched or spherical.
- Windows made of fibreglass have a lifespan that is significantly greater than that of wooden and aluminium frames, but it is not quite as long as that of vinyl windows.
What's The Difference? Fibreglass Vs. Vinyl Windows
Fiberglass Offers More Decor.
Both of these materials have the potential to be quite appealing; however, the appearance of windows made of fibreglass can be customised to a greater extent than those made of vinyl.
Glass exposure increases because fibreglass window frames are often lighter than vinyl window frames. When maximum exposure to natural light is desired, this is a helpful feature.
Fiberglass, on the other hand, can be painted while vinyl cannot, despite the fact that both of these materials exist in a broad variety of colours. Finally, unlike vinyl, fibreglass can be textured to mimic the appearance of natural wood, while vinyl is often smooth.
Vinyl Windows Are Less Expensive.
Although fibreglass windows typically have a cost that is marginally lower than that of wood, vinyl windows typically have a cost that is much lower than both of these materials. Vinyl will often save you anywhere from 10 to 30 percent of your total window installation cost, depending on your region, the size of your windows, and the number of windows you have. This can become a significant sum of money when one considers that the cost of replacing a wooden window might reach up to $1,000.
Fibreglass Is The Most Durable.
Fiberglass is the most durable material, but vinyl has a longer lifespan than fibreglass due to the fact that neither material rots or decays when exposed to moisture or insects like wood does. A window made of high-quality vinyl will have a lifespan of approximately 30 years, while a window made of fibreglass can still look beautiful on your property more than 50 years after it was installed.
Fiberglass is considerably more durable than vinyl and can withstand lengthy exposure to adverse weather conditions without warping or splitting. Due to the fact that vinyl responds to changes in temperature by expanding and contracting, the seal that is supposed to exist between the window frame and the glass pane can sometimes become broken. This results in a significant reduction in the window's ability to provide adequate insulation.
A Handy Diyer Can Install Vinyl Windows.
You can save between $100 and $200 on the installation of each vinyl window by doing it yourself if you have a power drill, hammer, tape measure, and utility knife and if you are somewhat adept with using these tools. It is far simpler to instal vinyl than it is to instal stiff fibreglass; it is also more tolerant of very tiny differences in measurement. This is due to vinyl's slightly flexible nature.
In addition, many stores that specialise in home remodelling offer prefabricated vinyl windows in conventional sizes, but purchasing fibreglass windows requires placing an order directly with the manufacturer. Take note that the warranties offered by many manufacturers of fibreglass windows are worthless if the windows are not installed by a qualified professional.
Fibreglass Is More Energy Efficient.
Fiberglass does a better job of controlling temperature loss or gain via the window than either wood or plastic does, despite the fact that both materials are relatively strong insulators. Fiberglass was developed in the 1920s primarily for the goal of being used as insulation, and to this day, that continues to be one of the most prevalent applications for the material.
As a general rule of thumb, windows made of fibreglass are up to 15 percentage points more energy-efficient than windows made of vinyl. Fiberglass, which is based on glass, is also quite excellent in insulating against sound, which is a vital factor to take into consideration if you live near a highway or another region that is prone to noise.
Both Are Nearly Maintenance-free.
Windows made of vinyl and fibreglass require almost no maintenance in comparison to those made of wood, which need to be painted and patched on a regular basis. If they become covered in muck, dust, or moss, you can clean them by scrubbing them with a stiff brush or a sponge and some warm water.
The only exception to this rule is for painted fibreglass windows, which will need to be repainted when they ultimately lose their colour or peel, which is highly likely to happen if you live in an area where the temperatures can fluctuate widely. In addition, if changes in temperature cause the seal on vinyl windows to break, you will need to caulk the windows in order to restore their ability to insulate.
Do-it-yourselfers who wish to instal new windows in their homes on their own will find it reasonably simple to source vinyl windows and to put them in by themselves. On the other hand, windows made of fibreglass have to be placed with a high degree of accuracy because the material is quite rigid and requires precise tolerances.
When installing windows in a new building or replacing existing ones, it is better to have a professional conduct the job. However, the installation of windows made of fibreglass should be handled by a trained professional. Some makers of fibreglass windows may be hesitant to sell windows directly to homes and may not warrant them if they are not installed by licenced contractors if the windows are not installed by them.
Vinyl windows are frequently available in home improvement centres for customers' convenience, whereas fibreglass windows have to be bought on an individual basis. Vinyl is a stretchable and adaptable substance that swiftly expands and compresses.
Because of this flexibility, as well as the fact that the frames can be created to within 1/8 of an inch of the window size, they can be placed far more quickly and effectively than a window made of fibreglass.
Because fibreglass is hard and does not expand or contract to the same extent as other materials, it might be more difficult to fit into the window opening, which can also take more time.
In most cases, the installation of either variety of window should be handled by a trained specialist. DIY installation of some vinyl windows is possible; however, this should not be attempted with fibreglass windows.
In addition to the amount of time required to instal the windows and the difficulty of doing so, fibreglass windows may take longer to arrive at their destination. The newness of the material has resulted in fewer manufacturers producing it and fewer contractors keeping it in stock, both of which have contributed to a lengthier lead time.
Strength And Durability
Windows constructed of vinyl or fibreglass are composed of inert substances, which means they will not rot and will not attract wood-destroying insects like termites or carpenter ants. In this regard, vinyl and fibreglass windows rank near to one another in terms of durability, particularly when compared to wood windows, which are built from organic elements that insects adore eating and which can rot. When compared to windows made of vinyl, those made of fibreglass will have more structural longevity.
A study that was done in 2007 found that the lifespan of fibreglass windows was approximately 38 percent longer than that of vinyl windows. Both the window frames and the panes of glass expand and contract at the same rate, which reduces the likelihood that the seal would fail. Additionally, fibreglass is derived from glass, the same material that is used to make window glass.
Failure of the seal in the insulated glass unit (IGU) is a major contributing factor in the formation of fog and condensation. The corner seams of vinyl windows are welded, and this is typically the location where a seal breaks down.
Fiberglass can produce a frame that is both more durable and more rigid than either vinyl or wood can. These windows never develop a warped appearance. They require little upkeep, other than the occasional coat of paint if you so desire. Fiberglass can be up to nine times stronger than vinyl in some applications. It is essential to keep in mind, however, that windows by themselves do not offer any kind of support to the structure.
Therefore, the simple capacity to withstand big weights, which is a marketing claim made by certain producers of fibreglass windows, is beneficial but not as substantial as it may appear on the surface. Vinyl windows can function admirably; however, this depends on the window aperture being properly framed.
Both of the windows require about the same amount of care. After the mould, mildew, moss, and dirt have been washed away with the hose, the window frames can be cleaned by washing them with a sponge and some warm water.
Fiberglass comes out on top in this case, primarily due to the fact that the fibreglass that is utilised in the window frames contains up to sixty percent recycled glass. PVC plastic, which is what vinyl windows are constructed of, is a difficult material to recycle once its useful life is through.
Windows made of fibreglass have a larger area of glass than windows made of vinyl. As a result of vinyl's inferior strength in comparison to that of fibreglass, additional material must be used to construct the frames.
This results in vinyl window frames being slightly thicker than fibreglass window frames, which takes up valuable area that could be used for glass.
When compared to vinyl windows, fibreglass windows have a larger amount of available glass space, which results in increased levels of natural light.
The surface of fibreglass can also be patterned to closely match the grain pattern of actual wood. Windows made of fibreglass can be purchased in a much wider variety of colours than vinyl windows can offer.
Windows made of fibreglass and vinyl both come with a variety of baked-in colours to choose from.
Fiberglass, on the other hand, has the added benefit of being able to be painted, in contrast to vinyl windows, which are difficult to paint and maintain over the long term.
Some types of fibreglass windows are designed with a core made of fibreglass and an exterior layer made of wood veneer (only on the interior side of the window).
Fiberglass is an insulator that is somewhat superior to vinyl due to the fact that the glass fibres within it do not expand and contract in response to changes in temperature.
The R-value of windows framed with fibreglass is 15 percent higher than that of windows framed with vinyl.
Both varieties, on the other hand, have great insulating properties due to the fact that they are built with hollow chambers, which are quite effective at reducing the rate at which thermal energy may be transferred.
Windows made of fibreglass not only have a higher energy efficiency rating, but they also provide superior insulation against the transmission of outside noise.
Real Estate Value
When it comes to resale value, fibreglass windows often perform better than vinyl windows.
Unless the windows are in a terrible state of repair, they do not play a large role in the process of establishing the asking price for a home.
When compared to vinyl windows, however, fibreglass windows would bring in a greater resale price should the prospective purchaser be interested in windows.
Windows made of fibreglass are a superior insulator to those made of vinyl.
They are also less likely to form an air gap over time, which can account for as much as thirty percent of the energy that you use to heat and cool your home. They are also less likely to develop an air gap over time.
Windows made of fibreglass are often regarded as the more environmentally friendly option.
One of the best investments that can be made in a house is getting vinyl windows because they have a return on investment of approximately 74%. Due to the fact that fibreglass windows are still relatively new, there have been no specific data provided. However, fibreglass doors and entryways are currently recouping approximately the same amount as vinyl, and replacement windows of any kind recoup at least 70% of the value at resale, making them an excellent investment in any home.
When it comes time to choose windows for new construction or replacement windows, vinyl-framed windows and fiberglass-framed windows are both good items that could be considered an improvement over wood windows. When price is the most important consideration, vinyl is a better option.
They are useful for making modest renovations to homes as well as for flipping houses. Fiberglass windows, on the other hand, are the ideal option in terms of both their attractiveness and their durability.
Which One Has A Better Roi?
Vinyl windows typically have a higher market value than fibreglass replacement windows, which is an important factor to consider when calculating the return on investment you will receive.
One of the best investments that can be made in a home is purchasing vinyl windows, which have a return on investment of approximately 74%. Since fibreglass windows have only been around for a relatively short time in comparison to vinyl windows, there are no specific data available.
Fiberglass doors and entryways, on the other hand, do recuperate around the same amount as vinyl doors and entryways, which making them an equally beneficial investment for any home.
So, Which Is Better?
Replacement windows made of vinyl or fibreglass are both manufactured from man-made materials. As a consequence of this, they are both excellent sources of insulation. Both have an excellent return on investment (ROI) and require little upkeep. So, which one do you recommend? Windows made of fibreglass are generally considered to have superior structural qualities over windows made of vinyl.
Fiberglass replacement windows are a good option to consider if you are looking for windows that will endure for a very long period and have a resale value that is marginally higher than that of other types of windows.
Nevertheless, everything boils down to a matter of taste and preference. You won't be unhappy with either of the two possibilities for the replacement windows, regardless of the material that you choose.
In addition to traditional wooden windows, modern options include those framed in aluminium, vinyl, or fibreglass. Each material has advantages and disadvantages, and this article will point them out so you can make a choice that works best for your home, budget, and lifestyle. Vinyl windows are constructed from a plastic that does not pose any health risks to humans or environmental hazards to the surrounding area. Fiberglass-framed windows built on this idea by appealing to a new demographic with their use of fiber-reinforced glass. Fiberglass window frames are becoming increasingly popular because they are more long-lasting than wooden frames while costing less than vinyl windows.
Fiberglass windows have the same level of energy efficiency as wood windows despite having much slimmer frames. Even though fibreglass is the strongest material, vinyl has a longer service life. Windows made of high-quality vinyl can be expected to last for around 30 years. Fiberglass can be textured to look like wood while vinyl is typically smooth. Fiberglass windows can increase a building's efficiency by as much as 15% compared to vinyl windows.
Fibglass is also a great sound insulator, which is especially important to think about if you live near a busy road or in another noisy area. Vinyl windows do not deteriorate or invite pests like termites or carpenter ants because they are made of a nonliving material. However, fibreglass windows are rigid and do not expand or contract like other window materials. Glass windows made of fibreglass are nine times more durable than those made of vinyl. Fiberglass windows can be painted and have a larger glass area than vinyl ones, which are notoriously difficult to paint and keep in good condition.
Fiberglass window frames come in a wider range of colours. Fiberglass windows are more soundproof and energy efficient than their wooden or vinyl counterparts. There is less of a chance that an air gap will develop in fibreglass windows over time, which can save you up to 30 percent on heating and cooling costs. If you're looking for replacement windows that will last a long time and increase your home's value, fibreglass is a great material to use. Fiberglass windows, in comparison to vinyl ones, are thought to be more sturdy and reliable in terms of their overall construction.
- Replacement window options can be overwhelming, and you're not alone in your struggle to choose between vinyl and fibreglass.
- Vinyl and fibreglass windows both have their advantages and disadvantages, and homeowners need to think carefully about a number of factors before making a final decision.
- Windows for either new construction or replacement can be found with frames made from a wide variety of materials.
- At this point, your only realistic options are vinyl, a fibreglass equivalent, or a composite made of fibreglass and other materials.
- Strong, long-lasting, reasonably priced, and aesthetically pleasing design are all important factors for homebuyers to think about.
- In order to help you make an educated decision that is suitable for your home, budget, and way of life, this article will compare and contrast vinyl and fibreglass replacement windows and highlight the pros and cons of each material.
- Hundreds of well-known window producers now supply extensive collections of vinyl-framed windows.
- The main advantage of vinyl-framed windows is that they are much cheaper than their wooden-framed counterparts, typically costing only about half as much.
- To further improve their energy efficiency, vinyl windows can have their hollow spaces insulated to increase their R-value.
- You can turn this positive feature into a negative one by painting your vinyl windows, though.
- Furthermore, when shopping for vinyl windows, you'll find a limited selection of colour options.
- Windows are typically made out of plastic that is both human- and environmentally-friendly.
- Changes in temperature can cause expansion and contraction in buildings, which can cause cracks and fissures between the window and the wall.
- Place two or three glass blocks inside the plastic frames to keep warm during the harsh winter.
- Windows will likely be more expensive as a result of this.
- Frameless Fiberglass Windows Fiberglass frame windows were able to take this idea one step further, while vinyl windows were able to successfully develop a consumer base that did not previously exist.
- Upon completion, the item can be machined or moulded into different shapes, at which point it is referred to as a linear.
- Originally, these alternatives were developed in response to the shortcomings of vinyl windows.
- Fiberglass, in addition, is a more robust material than vinyl.
- The lower profile and smaller size of fibreglass window frames allows for the same level of energy efficiency as that of wood or metal, making fibreglass windows a more attractive option.
- Fiberglass window frames are becoming increasingly popular because they are more long-lasting than wooden frames while costing less than vinyl windows.
- The fibreglass shape cannot be manipulated in any way that would result in bending.
- Fiberglass windows last longer than their wooden and aluminium counterparts, but not quite as long as vinyl ones.
- Windows made of vinyl are typically much cheaper than those made of wood or fibreglass.
- Depending on where you live, the size of your windows, and the number of windows you have, vinyl can save you anywhere from 10 to 30 percent on your window installation costs.
- As neither fibreglass nor vinyl rots or decays when exposed to moisture or insects like wood does, they both have longer lifespans than the previously mentioned material, which is wood.
- The average lifespan of a high-quality vinyl window is around 30 years, while a fibreglass window can still look great on your home more than half a century after it was installed.
- If you're somewhat handy with tools like a power drill, hammer, tape measure, and utility knife, you can save yourself $100-$200 by installing vinyl windows yourself.
- Both wood and plastic are good insulators, but fibreglass does a better job of regulating heat flow in and out of a building through its windows.
- Fiberglass windows are typically 15 percent more efficient than vinyl windows in terms of heating and cooling costs.
- Vinyl and fibreglass windows last much longer and require almost no maintenance than their wooden counterparts, which must be painted and patched on a regular basis.
- Caulking vinyl windows is also necessary if they have lost their insulating properties due to the effects of temperature changes.
- If you are constructing a new building or replacing old windows, it is recommended that you hire a professional to complete the work.
- However, a skilled professional should handle the installation of fibreglass windows.
- While fibreglass windows are available online, vinyl windows are more commonly sold in home improvement stores.
- Fitting a window made of fibreglass can be more challenging and time-consuming because it is rigid and does not expand or contract like other materials.
- Professional window installers should be contacted to set up either type of window.
- Some vinyl windows can be installed without the help of a professional; however, fibreglass windows should never be installed without professional assistance.
- Fiberglass windows will last longer than vinyl ones due to their stronger construction.
- Researchers in 2007 found that fibreglass windows last about 38% longer than vinyl ones.
- The likelihood of a seal failure is reduced because the window frames and glass move in tandem with each other.
- If the insulated glass unit (IGU) seal fails, condensation and fogging are more likely to occur.
- Glass-reinforced plastic (fibreglass) can be used to make a stronger and more rigid frame than either vinyl or wood.
- Sometimes fibreglass is up to nine times stronger than vinyl.
- Maintenance The maintenance for each window is about the same.
- Environment In this case, fibreglass wins out because the fibreglass used in window frames can contain as much as 60% recycled glass.
- Appearance The glass area of fibreglass windows is greater than that of vinyl windows.
- With more glass area, fibreglass windows let in more light than their vinyl counterparts.
- When compared to vinyl windows, which are difficult to paint and maintain over time, fibreglass has the added benefit of being able to be painted.
- Fiberglass windows have an R-value that is 15 percent higher than vinyl windows.
- Value of Real Estate In most cases, fibreglass windows outperform vinyl ones in terms of resale value.
- Windows don't have much of an impact on the asking price of a home unless they're in terrible repair.
- When put next to vinyl windows
- If the buyer is interested in windows, however, the resale value of the home will increase if the windows are made of fibreglass.
- The Problem of Pollution and Other Environmental Hazards Fiberglass windows are more soundproof than vinyl ones.
- Fiberglass windows are widely considered the greener option.
- Fair Market Price Vinyl windows have a return on investment of about 74%, making them one of the best home improvements you can make.
- Fiberglass doors and entries, on the other hand, are currently recovering roughly the same as vinyl, and replacement windows of any kind recover at least 70% of the value at resale, making them a fantastic investment for any home.
- Critical Considerations The use of vinyl-framed windows or fiberglass-framed windows in new construction or as replacement windows is a possible upgrade over the use of wood windows.
- Vinyl windows have a return on investment of about 74%, making them one of the best home improvements you can make.
- However, fibreglass doors and entryways do recoup about the same as vinyl doors and entryways, making them a worthwhile investment for any house.
- Both vinyl and fibreglass are synthetic materials that can be manufactured into replacement windows.
- Fiberglass windows, in comparison to vinyl ones, are thought to be more sturdy and reliable in terms of their overall construction.
- If you're looking for windows that will last for a long time and have a slightly higher resale value than other types of windows, fibreglass replacement windows are a good choice to consider.
- However, in the end, it's all a matter of personal preference.
- With both of these options, you can rest assured that you'll be satisfied with the replacement windows.
Frequently Asked Questions About Fiberglass And Vinyl Windows
A leading complaint from homeowners is that vinyl window frames are too bulky. Because this material is not as strong and durable as fibreglass and aluminium, the manufacturers have to use more of it in frame construction.
Fibreglass windows are up to eight times stronger than vinyl, which means they generally last longer. A good quality vinyl replacement window can last up to 30 years, while fibreglass windows can last 50 years or more. Fibreglass replacement windows are stronger and more durable due to their makeup.
Fibreglass windows are up to eight times stronger than vinyl because their frames are reinforced with strong glass fibres. With proper care, fibreglass windows can last 50 years or longer, while vinyl windows last up to 30 years.
Vinyl is durable and won't rust or corrode. That means you'll save even more money in the long run on maintenance and repair. To that end, these windows are scratch-resistant. Their element-resisting nature means this option lasts longer than others.
As a rule of thumb, fibreglass windows are generally superior in most categories. They allow for thinner frames, are more energy efficient, have more colour options, and are rated to last longer than most other types of windows, but that all comes at a premium.